Blog, News, Tweets

  • 0

ASSESSMENT: Personalized, Practical, and Purposeful


“I am still learning.” Michelangelo, age 87

Conversations about personalized learning are increasing throughout the education community. The language, frequently a matter of semantics*, includes adaptive, rigorous, customized, and paced. Many of these assertions come from the technology sector that continues to leverage research in support of their personalized learning tools. Yet, the evidence of positive effects varies by program design, content area, local implementation, and more. (Herold, 2016, Pane, 2017)

Learning by its very nature is active and inclusive. Assessment too is intended to be a reciprocal and dynamic process (see assidere) rather than solitary periods of time with an electronic tutor.

Everything is Personal

Every experience, event, and interaction with others passes through our limbic system, the emotional center of our brain, that immediately decides whether something, including learning and assessment, is beneficial and enjoyable, or too difficult, dangerous, or boring. Stress and fear can activate a student’s primal flight or fight response, adversely affecting learning outcomes.

Each person sees the world through their individual lens that is formed from experiences, beliefs, and feelings. Assessment, when considered through the lens of personalization, may be feasible or daunting. For a teacher, designing and scoring 22 different versions of an assessment is unimaginable. On the other hand, there are practical ways to personalize assessment without activating students’ or teachers’ fight or flight response.

 Not Everything is Within Our Control

Think about the things educators can control: Lesson sequences, instructional strategies, seating configurations, and classroom routines. Students too, can recognize what is within their skill set and sphere of influence. These insights lead to self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-confidence. However, teachers cannot control a student’s home life, their mental health, abuse, fear, trauma, or poverty: Students can’t either. Nor can artificial intelligence respond to emotions in real time.

Personalizing Assessment

Personalized assessment engages learners by linking standards to local learning intentions, relying on meaningful learning routines, monitoring progress, and modifying learning based on informative feedback from peers, teachers, and specialists. Personalized processes include:

Scaffolding begins with what students know and supports them as they move towards deeper understanding and greater independence. Scaffolding includes chunking learning, activating prior knowledge, and using multimodal exemplars.  For example, if students are expected to calculate the area of a rectangle but haven’t quite grasped the concept yet, they can begin by drawing a grid of one-inch squares and counting the boxes. “The Boy Who Loved Words” is an ELA example of embedding new vocabulary throughout teaching and learning.

Student Choice in displaying learning as it relates to and supports explicit outcomes and objectives. For one student 10 multiple choice questions and a brief paragraph may be feasible. A more independent student may choose 10 fill in the blank and a graphic organizer to show their comprehension. Students can also show their expertise through press releases, illustrated guides, or multimedia presentations. Scoring is based on benchmarks such as content, organization, and conventions of writing.

Sequencing of assessment means arranging assessments that start with basic foundations and then proceed to higher levels of learning. In doing so, students can decide (or in some cases, teacher indicates) where to stop when they have responded to the required number of questions at each level of complexity. This allows students to safely stretch beyond their comfort level without serious consequences.

Autonomy increases when students define personal learning intentions, develop actionable and timely learning plans, and have options for displaying learning. When showing their understanding of text complexity, younger children can decide how they would like to explain or demonstrate the who, what, or where of their reading. Older students can use words or visuals to analyze and unpack how a character changes and ideas unfold over time.  A checklist or rubric supports consistent self, peer, and teacher appraisal. (Note: Autonomy requires structure, sequence, expectations, and opportunities in support of choice.)

In Summary: Assessment that is Personalized, Purposeful, and Practical
 *Is consistent and aligned with standards, learning intentions, and outcomes.
*Involves modeling and teaching the skills of self-assessment.
*Engages and empowers learners in assessment
*Incorporates variable process and expression of learning.
*Provides realistic yet achievable levels of challenge.
*Relies on formative guidance that informs the next steps for both students and teachers.

Quality assessment supports and guides flexible groupings, identifies and intervenes in lingering gaps, and records progress towards goals. Technology can have a role in quality assessment, but it is not the primary resource.

Proceed with the 3 Cs: Caution, Care, and Common Sense    

There are already many educational initiatives and reforms demanding our attention: Mastering new learning management systems, frequent reauthorizations of ESEA, project-based and experiential learning, and a myriad of life skills such as collaboration, metacognition, and technological fluency. Each new initiative (1) contributes to initiative fatigue. Instead, slow down and consider ways to blend personalized assessment into existing routines. Be sure to encourage and support students as partners in learning.

(1) The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has spent billions on teacher preparation, educational inequality, and coherent standards; other initiatives include teacher retention, increased technology in school, charter schools, redesign of learning spaces but admit these initiatives haven’t resulted in the expected improvements.

golf-1802020_960_720-1Applying your learning to this image (or select a video in your content area):
The learning intention: Utilize proper form to hit a golf ball a specified distance
Analyze the student’s strategy based on the learning intentions and criteria
What modifications to performance would you recommend?
How would you quantify and qualify the learners progress?
How can your transfer this learning to your setting?


Herold, B. (2016)

Pane, J. F. (2017)

(1) Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation:

* Semantics The language used (as in advertising or politics) to achieve a desired effect on an audience especially through the use of words with novel or dual meanings

Extend your thinking:

  • 0

ASSESSMENT: Quality is Mightier then Quantity


To borrow the words of Edward Bulwer-Lytton, “The pen is mightier than the sword:” Assessment is more powerful than testing. Teachers test to see what student’s learned. Schools use test results to evaluate teachers. Districts use them to track and chronicle achievement.

For teachers, it can be a challenge to fit all the required testing within the daily routines of teaching and learning. In some schools, weekly standardized measures that simply quantify learning are the norm.
Alternatively, assessments (from the Latin assidere, meaning “to sit with”) extend and elaborate data, offer insights on student thinking, and guidance on teaching practices, with an emphasis on progress and improvement.

Learning becomes deeper and longer-lasting when students discover, investigate, analyze, and reflect. Think about your own experiences. Did your best learning come from watching a video of someone making a free throw? Or perhaps you were trying to follow a multi-step cake recipe that required caramelizing sugar, clarifying butter, and cutting in the fat. In both cases, deeper learning occurs by working alongside someone with more expertise, asking questions, and seeking clarification throughout learning.

The purpose of assessment has always been to promote learning, while measurement has traditionally referred to numerical reporting of outcomes.
Additional comparisons include:

Measurement Assessment
At the conclusion of teaching and learning Throughout teaching and learning
Reports outcomes Monitors progress
Quantifies student’s knowledge Provides Insights into student’s thinking
Reports data and evidence Presents learning outcomes in context

Assessment In Practice

Instead of a selected choice quiz, ask students to explain vocabulary in context. For example, when studying the Louisiana Purchase with a learning intention of: Students will define and explain the significance, connections, and outcomes of events, students begin by selecting 6 of these words: Federalists, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, French/France, borders, pioneers, New Orleans, Mississippi River, Lewis and Clark. This immediately reduces test anxiety as students activate connections to what they have learned. It also results in deeper insights into student thinking beyond recall of dates, locations, and names. Alternatively, as a substitute for a traditional test that asks who was president during the Louisiana Purchase have students record three pros and three cons of the Louisiana Purchase that Thomas Jefferson considered. Even better, ask them to write their response as if they were voting in favor of or against the purchase.

Verifying learning doesn’t have to be primarily on paper or through electronic devices. Consider ways to incorporate graphics and student-designed illustrations or student-friendly infographics such as and Piktochart. Formative assessments can be incorporated directly within learning, such as a quick-draw of a timeline, designing a compare/contrast chart, or explaining to a Martian how to calculate 15 million (the price of the Louisiana Purchase) in today’s dollars Then self and peer-assess with an analytic rubric designed to appraise purposeful learning intentions. For example; accurate us of vocabulary in context, the ability to compare/analyze perspectives, provide a fact-based defense of the position.


  1. How do these embedded and authentic assessments differ from more traditional summative strategies?
  2. What effects could this have on student learning outcomes?
  3. In what ways can you use these ideas for translating systematic measures into insightful assessments?

RESOURCES for further reading
National Academy Press Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment.

  • 0

Refocusing on Assessment


There’s no need to wipe the assessment lens clean each year. Instead of starting from scratch, return to these enduring assessment foundations that have consistently supported best practices in teaching and learning.

Assessment has always been about students: The word assessment comes from the same roots as assistance, meaning to help someone in completing a task or facilitating their achievement. Yet, over the years the balance has shifted from supporting/ sustaining individual learners towards reporting homogenized/collective scores.

Assessment must start locally, right in the classroom, in our own schools and communities. This means starting with what the students know and providing what is necessary for their peak progress and success.  Instead of planning backward from what high school graduates must know and be able to do, it is more effective to start with what incoming students know and can do.

When students arrive at school with dissimilar backgrounds, knowledge, and skills, it means that students may require a different path or different amount of time to grow into the curriculum. Lockstep curriculum does not result in all students reaching identical levels of achievement by the end of a predetermined period.

  1. Refocus on Students

Start with on time-tested practices that work for most students then fill in lingering gaps and misconceptions with personalized and targeted interventions. Be proactive by involving all students in assessment as well as learning. Refocusing on students builds ownership and is relevant, engaging, and motivational.

This doesn’t mean that every student will get their own curriculum, resources, and private tutor. It does mean that some students may require different resources or can display their learning in diverse ways. While Jana writes an essay, Chul chooses to design an infographic. Students, peers, and teachers assess these products of learning with consistent criteria such as accuracy, organization, and clarity.

  1. Refocus on Priorities

Rather than rating teachers on what they are doing, let’s assess students on their proficiencies, perseverance in overcoming challenges, and ability to solve problems. Instead of emphasizing productivity by the number of questions answered, refocus on the alignment of learning with success criteria and progress towards goals.

Just because student answers are displayed, doesn’t mean their learning aligns with the intentions and or even that students understand them. Blaise’s beautifully colored rainbow may attract our attention, but each segment includes only one concept. Blain’s is sloppy on first look, but when reviewed more closely his ideas show how the events blend and flow and illuminate his depth of analysis.

  1. Refocus on Gains and Growth before Final Scores.

Learning is not an Olympic sport. In fact, for athletes to rise to the level of Olympian it requires more than knowledge of technique and physical preparation. The best athletes focus on goals, aim for consistent improvement, and work at developing a positive and affirming mindset.

Emphasizing personal best rather than top scores results in less stress and reduced anxiety. In these settings, all students have opportunities to succeed. Embedded formative assessment is a window into student’s thinking. Rather than passing judgment at the end, it’s far better to acknowledge progress during the process.

When students and teachers use the feedback and information from formative assessment they:

  1. Recognize the current stage of learning,
  2. Identify lingering gaps,
  3. Select relevant interventions.

It is formative assessment combined with assistance that makes the most significant difference in learning outcomes.

Better than continuously reinventing the wheel, strengthening the underpinnings of assessment and fine-tuning those elements that work is more effective. There are many adjustments educators can make to assessment. These are just a few to think about and put into action. Let us know how this works for you and what questions you have.

  • 0




Just like everything you see, hear, and experience, assessment gets filtered through the emotional center of your brain. Deep within the limbic system, the amygdala and hippocampus respond to your moods, fears, and joys even before the learning is sent to neurons in the brain’s procedural and memory centers.

Thus, for many brains, the mere vocalization of the word TEST creates anxiety. This anxiety changes the interface of the brain from a learning stance to a fight or flight response. When this happens, the brain is bathed with cortisol and blood flows away from the frontal cortex (the thinking part of the brain) and flows into the primal flight or fight response center.

Alternatively, a brain working on an interesting and engaging project or assessment is in a state of what Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi calls Flow.  An engaged brain is processing learning through multiple areas, relying on the prefrontal cortex for complex thinking, decision-making, and self-regulation.

Rather than causing stress, ASSESSMENT CAN STRENGTHEN MEMORY. Here’s how it works in the classroom:

Students Who Feel Emotionally Safe Learn Better
If students anticipate failure or have negative feelings about the topic or the person teaching it, they are less apt to transfer learning to long-term memory centers. Classrooms must be places where failure is seen as an opportunity, and there is respect for all types of learners and learning.

Explicitly Teach Stress Management Strategies
Children who experience sustained activation of their stress response systems are less able to regulate behavior. Their brains have more difficulty transferring learning to long-term memory centers. With your class, before a test, practice deep breathing by taking “belly” breaths and then relaxing as you let it out. Also consider ways to include movement, music, visualization, and creative opportunities within teaching and learning

Activate Multiple Levels of the Learning Taxonomy
Learning is generally developmental and typically sequential, proceeding from content knowledge to production of original ideas. Begin assessments with recall and understanding to develop student’s confidence then extend questioning into the meaning or applications of learning. Also include analysis of visual prompts, evaluation of alternative perspectives, or production of original diagrams.

Balance the Methods of Assessment
Some learners prefer to match a word with its definition while others would rather include the word in a sentence that demonstrates and elaborates their understanding. Consider offering multiple measures or giving students options for displaying their learning. Variety and choice can reduce stress, but be sure they are aligned with consistent standards, learning intentions, and success criteria.

Rely on Non-cognitive Foundations of Learning
For teachers and students, there is a great deal of pressure to cram loads of testable knowledge into learning. At the same time, it is essential to acknowledge the non-cognitive underpinnings of learning. Teach students that intelligence is malleable, mindset helps them learn from mistakes, and conscientiousness leads to progress, even when the going gets tough.

Warning- Standardized tests don’t build neurons.
We each have different dietary needs and exercise requirements to maximize our health. Likewise, diverse approaches to learning and assessment also have different purposes and outcomes. Reducing stress leads to more accurate assessment. Engaging learners sustains their attention and builds ownership. The outcomes are a win-win for all.

  • 0

Pre-Assessment: Where Teaching and Learning Begins

What is Pre-assessment? basketball-49252_960_720Pre-assessment is an action or strategy at the start of instruction that reveals student’s incoming knowledge and skills and, in response, informs teaching and learning. It can occur at the start of a lesson, the beginning of a unit, or the introduction of a new idea, concept or skill. Think about the skilled baker who may have pre-measured all the ingredients only to discover that the bread is undercooked because the oven temperature wasn’t calibrated.

Why Should I Use It?
Emerging research on effective teaching and assessing confirms the value of starting where the students are in their sequence and cycle of learning. Teachers need to be attentive to gaps in knowledge, foundational skills, and preconceptions. John Hattie, in his research on Visible Learning, found that informative assessment has an effect size of .9, nearly at the top of his list.

How Can I Use It?
Pre-assessment can be used to identify incoming knowledge, recognize misconceptions about a topic, raise student’s curiosity, and engage them in new learning. Pre-assessment informs planning and guides next steps for the teacher and the learner. Pre-assessment also supports the alignment of instruction with learning intentions, as well as selection of resources, pacing, and grouping. If it makes sense to use a GPS when traveling, then it also makes sense to use a pre-assessment when teaching to support each learner on their pathway to success.

Pre-assessment Without Technology
Corners: Students go to a posted subtopic of an upcoming unit (from shapes to nutrition) and collectively write what they know about their selected subtopic. (example, what is a quadrilateral or compare chronic to infectious diseases) Post, discuss, and review what everyone agrees is correct, what are the discrepancies, and which ones are definitely wrong. Then, ask students what else they want or need to know.
Entrance Slip: Students map what they know about a topic, respond to questions, solve a problem, or record their ideas about a topic.
Predictions: Students predict the content and purpose of upcoming learning about a given topic such as the solar system or the Renaissance

Pre-assessment with Technology
Padlet can be used for collective brainstorming or displaying incoming knowledge.
Lino is a type of electronic sticky note where students can post their ideas or sort responses by subcategory; perhaps cloud formations or systems of government.
Plickers lets you poll your class as each student holds up a card displaying their answer. Cards can be scanned with your phone producing a class graph or individual student report.
Additional quiz software includes Socrative, Goformative, Google Forms  and Edpuzzle

Pre-assessments should stretch beyond recall of prior learning. They can be used to pique student’s curiosity, support critical thinking, and encourage problem-solving. It’s important to keep in mind that just because you taught it yesterday, doesn’t mean students are ready to put it into practice today.

  • 0

Technology: A Means or an End?

If you want to make a cake, does it matter if you beat the eggs with a fork or electric mixer? Either would work, but if you wanted to make meringue, you’d probably reach for the electric mixer. If you are gathering leaves in your yard, a blower may work faster than a rake, but the rake won’t wake the baby. Technology is like that too. It is crucial to be intentional in selecting the right technology and to be deliberate in matching it to explicit learning objectives.

Marketing by technology developers has been intensifying, accompanied by claims of overcoming inequality and improving critical thinking. Conferences such as ISTE, FETC, TCEA, CUE, iNACOL, and IETC all promote on educational technology. Professional education organizations that traditionally advocate for the development of the whole child are increasingly emphasizing the use of technology to personalize learning, learn collaboratively, inspire creativity, and prepare students for tests. But does technology truly make a difference in learning outcomes?

Don’t misunderstand, I love technology and even teach IT&DML in a graduate program for teachers. Students compile and evaluate technologies for specific learning intentions. They also design informative demonstrations of selected technologies. They are routinely asked to explain their reasoning in choosing a technology for this time, place, and purpose? We also rely on models of technology integration such as SAMR, TPACK, and TAR that support increasingly complex applications of learning technologies.

However, when I visit a 3rd-grade classroom and see students spending an hour in the morning on an ELA tutorial and another hour in the afternoon with programmed math coaching, while seated in swivel or bouncing chairs with fidgeting devices, that’s when I worry about the direction that technology implementation is taking.

As a tool or utensil, technology can
*Develop foundational knowledge and skills
*Assist in information management such as compiling, clarifying, and categorizing
*Verify and advance prior learning
*Track scores
*Produce authentic products

As a conduit or process, technology can
Engage students in evaluating evidence
*Strengthen higher level reasoning and divergent thinking
*Foster collaborative learning
*Oversee progress and improve learning outcomes
*Provide opportunities for displaying all types of learning in varied ways

Technology itself may be able to build children’s knowledge, but it cannot make children smarter. It has the potential to be transformational when teachers and students are prepared to constructively choose, use, and evaluate the technology and learning outcomes. Technology is not a panacea for learning nor a cure-all for raising test scores.  Rather, the emphasis must be on promoting thoughtful adoption and valid implementation of appropriate and substantiated technologies in support of instructional aims.

Considerations and Caveats
Personalized and competency-based describe technology that adapts to the learner’s progress. Evidence is still emerging on the advantages and best use of these technologies for instructional purposes. Concerns about insulating children from learning from their mistakes, and over-individualizing learning, can be balanced through teaching and learning that also embraces interpersonal skills such as self-regulation and perseverance, and intrapersonal skills such as collaboration and empathy.

Consider Amanda and Chanda who are learning about volume measures. Amanda starts with the electronic tutorial and quickly understands the relationship between cups, pints, and quarts. Chanda is stymied by the images and vocabulary until she goes home and bakes a cake with her father. He takes a different approach.  Rather than using the measures in the recipe, he gives her partial measures and has her figure out how to translate teaspoons into tablespoons and 1/3 cups into two cup measures. In doing so, she also learns to persevere and correct her mistakes.

It is also important to consider the developmental appropriateness of different technologies. A brief recap of Jean Piaget’s work explains that cognitive abilities emerge over time. Just as we don’t expect a 3-month-old to understand object permanence, we wouldn’t expect most 5-year-olds to demonstrate abstract problem-solving.

When used selectively, technology can support and encourage all modes and levels of developmental abilities. This requires easing up on the technology accelerator and taking the time to choose the best technology for a purpose. Don’t forget that children need to smell the real roses, play with tangible toys, and create original artifacts along the way. There’s always time, in real-time, for students to benefit from the advantages of a well-structured classroom debate, questioning deeply, teaching others, and monitoring progress, rather than simply reporting learning outcomes and scores.

Think about it:

  1. How do you use technology to personalize learning?
  2. In what ways can technology strengthen collaborative learning?
  3. What technologies would you recommend to encourage higher and deeper thinking?
  4. How would advise others in using technology to engage, activate, and inspire, thinking and imagining?
  5. Instead of just substituting technology for a more traditional resource such as a workbook, how will you use it to augment and redefine learning?

The potential for technology is already proven. Selected technologies have been validated, but the full potential of technology integration with balanced learning systems is still under development. Most importantly, there is not yet widespread evidence on which practices are most effective for specific standards and targeted learning intentions. Like the camel trying to get into the tent, technology’s nose is already in: giving the rest of it entry depends on your purpose, context, and circumstances.


If technology came with safety information, what should it include? What would you add?
>This technology may be more effective when blended with other instructional strategies
>Caution, this technology may be habit-forming: Do not use for more than 1 hour at a time
>To reduce side effects, use only for the intended purpose
>Frequent use can be detrimental to children’s physical, social, and emotional development
.May result in a decrease of spending on other important instructional initiatives

As Marshall McLuhan said decades ago: “The medium IS the message.”


  • 0

Proactive Assessment

What does it take to develop and engage student’s minds while also improving learning outcomes? Habits such as regular exercise and a healthy diet contribute to good health. There are also habits of cognitive health that fortify knowledge and skills and promote success for all learners. Experts on habits praise their value.
                        “Quality is not an act; it is a habit.” Aristotle           statue-386647_960_720-copySteven Covey’s (1989) first habit is to “Be Proactive,” and his second is to “Begin with the End in Mind.” In relation to learning and assessing he is asking us to think about where we are headed and how we will take responsibility for getting there. He recommends focusing on the things you can control: your thoughts, actions, and habits.

Art Costa and Bena Kallick (2009) describe “habits of mind” as essential skills and dispositions that empower critical thinking and support purposeful teaching and learning. From their list of 16, these five are especially pertinent to proactive assessment.
Persisting: Sticking with learning, seeing it to completion, utilizing practices that support goal attainment.
Striving for Accuracy: Maintaining high standards, doing your best, and seeking quality outcomes.
Remaining Open to Continuous Learning: Recognizing that there is always more to learn.
Thinking Flexibly: Looking at situations or problems from multiple perspectives.
Thinking about Thinking Ability to stand back and consider thoughts and actions in relation to a goal.

Developing a Proactive Assessment Mindset

Being proactive means being preemptive in averting problems as well as being prepared to respond to emerging situations before they become major problems. In contrast, a reactive approach means taking action on something that has already happened. Of course, it is not possible to prevent all debacles, but it is far better to anticipate them.

In relation to assessment, a proactive mindset recognizes and prepares for foreseeable changes and has strategies for responding to the unexpected. In education, this means considering emerging policies and directives as well as exploring promising practices. Then, in response, making judicious changes to a schools testing methods, assessment practices, and reporting. There are numerous proactive opportunities in balancing federal testing policy with authenticated trends in assessment.

Proactive Assessment and Policy

ESSA offers selected opportunities for states, districts, and schools to be proactive about assessment. At the high school level, they can choose from nationally “recognized” exams. States can also administer interim tests and develop performance tasks, but few have taken advantage of this opportunity due to concerns about validity and costs. Beyond test scores that make up at least half of the measurement of school performance, other accountability measures include student attendance, enrollment in advanced coursework, and school climate. However, most of the proactive potential is at the local level.

Proactive Assessment and Local Practice

The most effective, proactive assessments rely on the best practices in assessment: The ones that have been substantiated and withstood the test of time. Those that not only raise test scores, but engage students in clear, consistent, and informative measures of learning.


Alignment means deconstructing large-scale standards into understandable, actionable, and assessable classroom learning intentions.

Consistency about the student’s role in learning, in behavioral and performance expectations, and clarity of instruction and assessment.

Ongoing, supportive and informative assessments from pre to post along with evidence of students’ understanding of those assessments and outcomes.

Multiple measures from selected choice and standardized to project-based and performance appraisals.

Student ownership of goals, learning, monitoring, and self-assessment; accompanied by meta-cognition, motivation, and self-regulation.

Emphasis on progress over final scores; reasoning over recall of facts.

Developing teachers as assessors who can effectively utilize formative and summative practices to inform their practice, improve instruction, and use assessment in support of learning.

Fostering future readiness in students means preparing them for continuous change through adaptability, meta-cognition, personal initiative, and problem-solving as well as interpersonal skills such as empathy and compromise.

It Doesn’t Matter whether you use technology or more traditional strategies. What does matter is that the assessment aligns with and supports the learning intentions. From Animoto presentations to Coggle mind mapping, and Edpuzzle where questions are embedded in a video, what matters is how well they support and align with the expected learning outcomes. From a Fishbowl activity to a debate, the assessment of learning depends on clear and visible learning expectations that give student agency over their assessments.

Putting Into Practice
Reactive assessments sound like this: “Well I taught it but they just didn’t listen well enough.” Proactive assessments sound like this: “I wonder why they didn’t get this idea- how can I teach it differently?” or “I gave Magrite feedback; I’ll check on why she didn’t use it.” Which led to her explaining “I didn’t understand what cursory meant.”

Proactive assessment relies on giving students informative feedback, annotating descriptive rubrics, peer review and opportunities for self-reflection. In response, students use that information to edit, adjust, and correct their work.

Anton explains that “The review sheet made me realize that I skipped the third stage. I reviewed what we learned and corrected my work. Now, I think my grade should change from a 79 to an 84.”

Student activations for proactive self-assessment
Please be specific and include examples as you respond to these prompts:

  1. In relation to these learning intentions and the success criteria, I now know and can do____
  2. When I compare my work to the goals and success criteria, I become aware that I still am learning or wondering______
  3. I am now working at this level of the scoring scale_______ on account of this evidence:
  4. Here’s what I did to achieve this higher level outcome:
  5. I still need help with___________ I will get this help from ___________
  6. I have these lingering questions ______________
  7. This is what I want to commend about my learning____________
  8. This is what I recommend to improve my learning______________
  9. Here are some ways I can use my learning__________

Source: Restorative Assessment, Strength-Based Practices that Support All Learners, Laura Greenstein, Corwin Press 2018, p.96


Costa, A and Kallick, B (2009) Habits of Mind Across the Curriculum. ASCD

Covey, S. (2004) The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, Free Press

(Note: there is a subsequent version- Covey, S (2014) The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Teens)


  • 0

Courageous Assessment


Does being fearless, knowing how to dog paddle, and wearing floaties prepare you for a 50-meter freestyle? If that was a standardized test question and a student selected True, their answer would most likely be marked wrong. Students rarely have opportunities to explain their reasoning. But, what if Amara explained that she had been taught to visualize her success, learned the rules for the specific race (she actually participated in a dog paddle race), and to ease up on the intensity of practice shortly before the event? Rather than relying on the shallow end of numerical scores, consider how assessment becomes more transparent and meaningful when it delivers visible insight into student’s thinking.

In general, teachers receive minimal preparation in assessment, measurement, and evaluation. Too often, the powerful voices behind data-driven learning believe that if teachers are given detailed data reports and collaboratively study the reams of data, learning outcomes will improve. Like jumping into the deep end of the pool without preparation, knowing data but not understanding assessment leads to misinterpreting the overwhelming glut of assessment data. The result is inaccurate decisions about students and inadequate insight into what they know and can do.

Assessment Literacy
Developing assessment literate teachers, rather than expanding standardized testing, is essential to the success of every student. At the heart of assessment literacy is an understanding of the purpose of assessment, how to interpret and utilize data appropriately, and ways to provide opportunities for all students to succeed.

Standardized tests have a purpose in providing large-scale measures that summarize big-picture outcomes. However, there is no place for high-stakes tests that rate schools, judge teachers, and regulate students’ learning. Rather, it is in the classroom that assessment literate teachers cultivate assessment capable learners. Similar to successful swimmers, these students can: Set goals, develop actionable plans, improve skills, monitor headway, and adjust the course of learning. Assessment capable teachers and students have the skills to successfully navigate the deep end of thinking and learning.

For assessment literate teachers, these are the essentials:

  1. Relying on high-quality assessments that align with the purpose and intentions of teaching and learning.
  2. Incorporating multiple types of measures from selected choice to graphic displays, and justification of conclusions.
  3. Assessing throughout learning taxonomies; from content knowledge to the analysis of evidence, and production of original ideas.
  4. Communicating results and outcomes in ways that are understandable and actionable by students and parents.
  5. Emphasizing progress and improvement in order to support and encourage student’s continuing success.

For assessment capable students it means:

  1. Understanding the learning goals and intentions: Using their own words to explain what, why, and how they will learn.
  2. Identifying and acting on the steps and resources they need to build their learning.
  3. Monitoring their progress against specific indicators: This may be accurate use of content vocabulary or clarity and specificity in their learning journal.
  4. Anticipating and utilizing constructive feedback from teacher, peers, and self-reflection that is specific to process and products of learning.
  5. Improving learning outcomes by understanding and correcting missteps and misunderstandings.

Together assessment literate teachers and students:

  1. Collaboratively develop, identify, and share understanding of learning intentions.
  2. Continuously compare outcomes to intentions.
  3. Recognize their location on the sequence of learning outcomes.
  4. Identify lingering gaps and misunderstandings.
  5. Collaboratively decide on interventions to resolve missteps and close gaps.

Things I’ve learned about assessing courageously, responsibly, and respectfully

  • It’s not the best practice to throw your student into the deep end to see if they can swim.
  • We all need floaties from time to time
  • Other times dog paddling is sufficient
  • Sometimes we must be prepared to swim the distance
  • Everyone can reach their finishing line with just-right support, monitoring of progress, reasonable assessments, and constructive feedback.
  • Sometimes students would rather run or fly than swim to their goal. There are also those who want to meander down their own stream, dive into the Hadal Zone, or skyrocket towards unknown galaxies.


reflection-743932_960_720First Published on EdCircuit:

Enrichment: What Teacher Preparation Programs Teach About K-12 Assessment

  • 0

When Students Own the Assessment


Who owns assessment? Is it the teacher, school, district, or the test industry? If the government requires them, do they also own the measures? Something was missing from those questions and if you noted that it was “the students”, you’re right. The more schools emphasize standardized tests scores, provide the measures of learning, and dispense scores and grades; the more students feel left out. Yet, research continues to confirm the importance of engagement and ownership in children’s success. (NWEA 2015)

Assess didn’t originally mean to measure. It meant to sit beside and assist. When assessment reverts to its true intent, students will predictably become less anxious and more curious. They will also become less resistant and more engaged. This, in turn, leads to motivation, inspiration, and initiative. Here are some ideas for engaging learners as assessors.

  1. RELEVANT: Make assessment meaningful. In place of hollow tests that measure portions of learning, provide opportunities for students to show how they can integrate and use learning. A traditional test may start with vocabulary and content knowledge; a foundation for moving to higher levels of learning. Along with that, allow students choice in showing what they know. Samir chooses to write a traditional essay, while Ramina says she will write a script or poem, and Tashi wants to prepare an infographic. Ask students to then label their learning as content knowledge, application of learning, inquiry, production, and other outcomes that align with learning intentions.
  1. INFORMATIVE: Assessments not only measure student learning, but students can also learn from assessments. During one, they annotate their confidence in their answer and explain or query those that have a confidence level of 3 or below on a scale of 5. When the measure is returned, students correct their errors, explain what they now know, and resubmit their outcomes. In this way, both students and teachers are engaged and informed by the assessment.
  1. COLLABORATIVE: Debates, defenses of positions, advertisements, and other demonstrations of learning can be completed individually or collaboratively. Scoring of these can be more challenging, but a rubric that clearly defines learning intentions and levels of attainment smooths the way. Students assess their use of content vocabulary, research-based evidence, the coherence of their argument, and respect for diverse perspectives. They then also have a well-defined basis for scoring their peers.
  1. INTEGRATED: The best assessments are those that a person doesn’t even know they are taking. For example, frequent student checkpoints provide ongoing updates on learning. At the conclusion of a learning intention or unit, show a brief video, then students use the unit vocabulary to respond to a prompt such as “if you were that person, would you have solved the problem the same way? Why? What other options are there? What knowledge and concepts were used; what are needed?” In doing so, the focus remains on the learning process and progress rather than a summative test.
  1. OWNERSHIP: Informative and integrated assessments can be used for self-evaluation, misconception checks, revision of work, identification of next steps, and lingering questions. Ownership also gives student voice when they explain their answers, defend their views, and decide how to show their learning. They take ownership when they can explain their learning intentions, the strategies they used, analyze the outcomes, and describe their path to improvement. Collectively, these strategies give students the self-confidence they need to ultimately succeed not only on summative tests, but in school and life.

While testing can damage a fragile sense of self, assessment is the mindful practice of reflection, analysis, problem-solving, and improving. When children learn a sport, they consistently assess their progress and seek guidance on stepping-up their game. In the classroom, help students experience that sense of joy with embedded and meaningful assessments accompanied by coaching and scaffolds that support progress towards higher levels of achievement.

 “The aim is to get the students actively involved: their role is not simply to do tasks as decided by teachers, but to actively manage and understand their learning gains. This includes evaluating their own progress, being more responsible for their learning, and being involved with peers in learning together about gains in learning.”  John Hattie, Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning

NWEA (2015) Better Engagement Improves Learning

First posted on Corwin Connect, October 2017

  • 0

Assessing From the Heart

The Core Ideas, Fundamental Practices, And True Intentions of Assessment


Relying on the Known   

A few years back, the new administration at Mélange High School urged teachers to “flip” their classrooms. In this way, the foundations of a topic were learned at home. In class, students would participate in meaningful discussions and develop critical thinking skills. At this same time, administration decided that there were no penalties for late assignments or incomplete homework. The results were dismal.

Imagine if Benjamin Bloom hadn’t considered Piaget’s stages of cognitive developmental when designing his learning taxonomy? What if Copernicus couldn’t rely on the work of Aristarchus of Samos to develop his heliocentric theory. Today, it makes no sense for schools to adopt every neoteric idea rather than relying on substantiated foundations.

What Really Matters  

A recent sketch on late-night TV asked the question: “What really matters anymore?” (SNL, 2018) It prompted me to ask “What really matters in assessment?”

  1. If there are no longer consequences for student’s not doing homework, should there no longer be consequences for teachers choosing not to spend their evenings grading papers and designing engaging lessons?
  2. If students can turn assignments in when they get around to it, should teachers also submit their “assignments” when they get around to it? Does that count for report cards, lesson plans, and communicating with parents?
  3. Should teachers have the freedom to teach fake news as facts? For example, “The War of the Worlds” was real, and the Civil War wasn’t about slavery?
  4. Despite their college degrees do we believe that teachers haven’t yet developed an understanding of their content area and pedagogy and that they all require prescriptive curriculum and instructional manuals?
  5. As budgets are cut, and teacher’s salaries are fixed or declining, does it matter that they are spending more money than ever buying supplies and instructional resources for their students and classroom?
  6. Does it matter that many teachers work second jobs to make ends meet? What about the increasing pay differential between teachers and other professions requiring college degrees?
  7. Are teachers the only ones accountable for identified failures of our educational system such as international test score comparisons, and overcoming poverty?
  8. Does it matter that many districts make annual changes to standards, testing, teacher evaluation, and student management systems, requiring teacher to spend a large portion of their time mastering these continuously changing addendums?

 (Hint- The answers are always “Of Course Not”)

A Teaching Quandary

When I was dividing my time between teaching and administrative duties, I chose to teach a class at the end of the day (usually my administrative time). Teachers who I respected were telling me that they were having difficulty sustaining instructional routines and managing behavior during that time of day. It didn’t take me long to realize this was true of my late day class as well. Digging a little deeper, I learned that the class had a larger than typical number of students with 504’s and IEPs. This was the result of budget cuts eliminating instructional aides after lunch and prioritizing their academic classes earlier in the day. Yet, the teachers were held accountable for the students’ low scores. Realizing that three sections of the class were being taught throughout the day, became an Aha! Moment and an opportunity for productive problem-solving.

The three teachers, including myself, shared a common curriculum and common assessments. At the start of the semester, on the pre-assessment (a mini version of the final exam) my class scored an average of 57%, the other two classes, 69%. At the end of the semester, my class scored 71%; the other two classes averaged 81%. I arrived at my yearly evaluation with this data and used it to explain that my student’s growth was higher than the other classes’, and also to defend the value of ongoing growth, not only final scores. Consider the failures of Oprah Winfrey, Walt Disney, J.K. Rowling, Michael Jordan, and Steve Jobs. Without teachers, and mentors, and their own powerful belief in learning from failure and trying one more time, we might have never benefitted from their achievements.

Most teachers choose their profession because they enjoy working with children, want to make a difference in their lives as well as in the world.  Inspired by their own teachers, they dream of paying it forward for the next generation.

Assessing from the heart means relying on these fundamentals assessment practices:

 Students set their own specific and measurable personal goals in relation to the learning intentions

Jamal explains, “I don’t like math, but if I need it to design video games, I’ll do all my algebra homework.”

Rosarial says “If I understand why wars begin, maybe I can help our leaders prevent future ones.”

Markers of achievement are evident, attainable, and measurable

Chan states, “I will list and define 10 new vocabulary words by the end of the chapter.”

Stella says, “I will use my new vocabulary by explaining its meaning using words and illustrations.”

 Students are the users of assessment. They track progress in relation to goals using graphs and narratives

Milan shows this path of his learning:milans-chartEsmeralda announces:

I thought I knew a lot about birds when we started this unit, but now realize that I understood mostly about their bones and feathers, but not about adaptation so let me tell you about that. And also how dinosaurs evolved into birds and why there are so many different species of birds. My favorite new word is phylogeny.

 Multiple measures are used to assess student learning

For example, selected choice for content knowledge, narratives and images for analysis and evaluation, and metacognitive prompts and graphic organizers for predicting and defending.

 Technology is selected and used for a purpose

Choose and use those that align with learning intentions, provide feedback for improvement, and support increasingly complex learning combined with reasonable flexibility and personalization.

Seek what really matters in assessment: Getting to the heart, the true intent of assessment, which has always been for improvement rather than ranking teachers and students.

You can learn more about these best practices at and also from these advocates for quality assessment:

The Gordon Commission, Lorrie Shepard, James Pellegrino, Linda Darling-Hammond, John Hattie, Dylan Wiliam, Heidi Andrade, David T. Conley, and initiatives such as Students at the Center, Assessment Reform Group, Brookings Institution, Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation.


Recent News

The Institute of Educational Sciences (IES) continues to be a reliable source for research and data on numerous topics in education. Learn more about it here

Ideas for making annual testing more meaningful



Assessment-Literate Educators

7 Things Assessment-Literate Educators Need to Do. (including: Balanced, Intentional, & Aligned) from NWEA/Advancing Assessment Education


Overused Buzz Words

In this edweek article, from Larry Ferlazzo’s Classroom Q and A, the most overused words in educatioin include: at-risk, data-driven, rigor, 21st century skills, flipped and more. Read about it at

SCAN “The Journal for Educators”

Showcasing innovation in education


View All News >

Recent Tweets