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Not too many learners look forward to a test, but this assessment is designed to reflect time-honored best-practices in assessment. It may confirm what you already know and/or challenge your thinking. Either way, it is an opportunity to validate your understanding, gauge your expertise, and identify lingering gaps.

Select one correct answer for questions but note that question 5 calls for two answers. Also note the ascending levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy. To help you out, each question has a hint or a quote from an assessment specialist or respected authority. 

_____1. Large-scale strategies and methods primarily intended to quantify and judge learning are called (Recall)

A. Assessments                                                          
B. Tests.
C. Verdicts.
D. Evaluations.

“Testing has always been 20-20 hindsight. It’s good for seeing where you’ve been but can’t tell you what to do next or guide next steps.” Robert M. Pirsig Correct answer is B

_____2. In comparison to benchmark assessments, formative assessments help educators:                 (Understand)

A. Track students’ academic trajectory toward long-term goals.
B. Diagnose gaps in students’ understanding  or skills and guide next steps in instruction.
C. Evaluate the effectiveness of the overall educational environment.
D. Decide which summative test to use.        

“One of the most important roles of formative assessment is the provision of timely and informative feedback during teaching and learning.” National Resource Council Correct answer is B

_____3. Formative assessment includes all the following EXCEPT                                                          (Understand)
A. Questions and answers incorporated throughout teaching and learning.
B. Assessments used to determine a final score.
C. Feedback to and from students.
D. Information about student progress that informs instruction.

“Formative assessment helps student continue to learn as well as see evidence of progress” Rick Stiggins Correct Answer is B

_____4. What type of assessment is a teacher using when she asks, “Does everyone understand the vocabulary?” (Understand/Apply                                                             
A. Summative Assessment  
B. Formative Assessment
C. Performance Assessment
D. Authentic Assessment

Checking for understanding requires confirmation and evidence. Consider including a “quick quiz” with Quizlet or Plickers” Correct answer is A

_____ _____5. How should Mr. M respond to the outcomes of pre-assessments?  Select two answers to this question. Apply/ Analyze                                                      
A. Give a second pre-test
B. Teach his unit as planned
C. Modify the unit objectives to align with student’s abilities   
D. Begin class with a review of gaps in prior learning as
required for upcoming learning

“Providing a framework for improvement instead of simply labeling it at periodic intervals, has the greatest capacity to impact student achievement.” Robert Marzano  Correct answers are C and D

_____6. When compared to summative assessment, formative typically:                                                       (Analyze)
A. Judges the outcomes of learning.
B. Is used during teaching in support of learning.
C. Is given at the end of a unit of instruction.
D. Generates numerical data.

“Feedback functions formatively only if the response to the learner is intended to deepen understanding and improve performance.” Dylan Wiliam Correct Answer is B

_____7. How is assessment related to a class’s learning objectives?                 (Analyze)
A. Assessment and learning objectives mean the same thing.    
B. Assessments certify that a class’s learning objectives have been met.     
C. The instructional objectives and learning intentions should align with purposeful assessment.    
D. There is no relationship between assessment and learning objectives.

“Assessment and instruction are often conceived as curiously separate in both time and purpose.” Lorrie Shepard Correct answer is C

ENRICHMENT: Design a chart for teachers that shows the significant differences between measurement and assessment.                                                                                                                                                      (Create/Analyze)     

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Quiz on Testing, Assessment, and Measurement

Not everyone looks forward to a test, but this assessment is designed to reflect time-honored best-practices in assessment. It may confirm what you already know and/or challenge your thinking. Either way, it is an opportunity to validate your understanding, gauge your expertise, and identify lingering gaps.
P.S. answers are included with each question.

Select one correct answer for each question but note that question 5 calls for two answers. Also note the ascending levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy. To help you out, each question also has a hint or a quote from an assessment specialist or respected authority.

_____1. The landmark meta-analysis of formative assessment “Inside the Black Box” was written by:        (Recall)

  1. John Hattie and Robert Marzano.
  2. Charlotte Danielson.
  3. Linda Darling-Hammond.
  4. Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam.

Although each of these authors advocates for informative, effective, and practical, assessment. In relation to the “Black Box” study. The correct answer is 4.

_____2. A primary purpose of formative assessment is to:  (Understand)

  1. Identify misunderstandings and close lingering gaps in learning.
  2. Prepare teacher to give standardized tests.
  3. Rank and assign grades to students.
  4. Gather data for report cards.

“One of the most important roles of formative assessment is the provision of timely and informative feedback during teaching and learning.” National Resource Council  The correct answer is 1

_____3. Mr. Em wants to pre-assess his students individually. Which strategy should he use?                         (Apply)

  1. Peer review, by other students, that relies on quality indictors
  2. Sticky notes for collaboratively sorting information
  3. Vocabulary matching task for homework
  4. Exit slip where each student responds to the same prompt

All can disclose student learning, but exit slips are better suited for revealing each student’s explicit learning. The correct answer is 4

_____4. If a teacher gives an exam and everyone fails, what should he or she do?                                           (Apply)

  1. Give the exam again.
  2. Determine why students gave incorrect answers.
  3. Make the exam easier.
  4. Adjust his/her teaching style.

Understandingthe reasons behind student errors and misunderstandings is an essential first step before deciding whether to change instruction, resources, or measures of learning. The correct answer is 2

_____ _____5. When comparing assessment to measurement: Select two answers to this question. (Analyze)

  1. Assessment is defined by a single numerical score
  2. Assessment provides information that guides instructional decisions.
  3.  Assessment generally relies on multiple strategies that provide insights into student learning.
  4. Assessment results in a numerical grid showing student’s rankings.

Assessments that rely on multiple strategies to inform teaching and learning result in more accuracy, whereas Measurement is generally associated with numbers and rankings. The correct answers are 2 & 3  

_____ 6. The development of student self-assessment skills is beneficial because,                        (Analyze/Evaluate)

  1. For the most part, students need letter grades to effectively monitor their learning.
  2. Assessment is most meaningful when teachers give students grades.
  3. Teachers know best about the indicators of quality learning.
  4. Self-regulation develops from the ability to self-assess objectively, accurately, and fairly.

“Students have to be able to judge the quality of what they are producing as well as regulate processes throughout learning.” Robert Sadler. The correct answer is 4

_____7.  Which assessment requires students to demonstrate their learning through actions and tasks? (Understand)  

1 Performance Assessment    
2. Formative Assessment
3. Summative Measures
4. Standardized Tests                                                                                

“The content of selected choice tests is less important than how and whether students can use their competencies to further learning, overcome obstacles, and resolve complex problems.” Dietel, Herman, and Knuth. The correct answer is 1

_____8. Informative and instructive feedback is important because,                                                           (Understand)   

  1. Quality feedback helps students to learn from their misunderstandings.
  2. It makes the student feel good about themselves.
  3. It explains the grade that was assigned.
  4. Teachers are supposed to give their students feedback.

“Positive learning outcomes were more likely when feedback focused on learning intentions and features of the task.” Kluger and DeNisi.  The correct answer is 1

ENRICHMENT:  Write a selected-choice or short-answer question about assessment. Evaluate the question for quality indicators of assessment. Ask another educator for feedback.                                              (Create/Analyze)      


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ASSESSING Deliberately and Thoughtfully; with Purpose and Persistence

Most of us have heard the story of the race between the tortoise who slowly and steadily ambled down the path and the hare who ran as fast as he could until he was exhausted, and stopped for a nap.

No doubt, we live in a fast-paced world where keeping up with styles and trends can be challenging as well as exhausting. Gas prices and global markets change minute by minute. Diet and fashions fads come and go as do sources of high-tech entertainment. Access to information has expanded and sped up, leading to rapid adoptions and just as swift dismissal of products and ideas. But, when things change too quickly, it becomes difficult for our brains to manage the overabundance of novelty and choices, making us feel more like the racing bunny. (Read more about How information overload affects the brain)

The word “hack” traditionally meant to cut down things such as dense woods.  Subsequently, it was used to describe illegally breaking into another’s computer. Now, a life-hack refers to innovations and shortcuts that increase efficiency and productivity. Assessments, too, have been hacked and are now programmed, adaptive, diagnostic, and personalized in ways that allow test takers to record their answer and receive quick feedback.

Rather than trying to determine what a student knows as speedily as possible, it is more productive to decelerate assessment and delve into student thinking more deeply. Slowing down means taking time to use insights for a purpose: to scrutinize emerging learning, gain an understanding of thinking, and consider how it connects to current knowledge and skills.

Testing is more about measuring what students know, while assessment means gaining insight into how students are thinking and reasoning. Assessment also delves more deeply into a student’s ability to compare, appraise, analyze, and evaluate authenticity, comprehensiveness, and usefulness in relation to explicit learning intentions. Rather than asking a student to define mammal or fish, ask them to compare mammals to fish in terms of each ones living environment, skin covering, breathing, locomotion, and diet.

Assessment Practices that encourage, raise, and sustain student achievement are deliberate and unhurried.

Preparing students for an assessment is like priming the well. Assessment results improve when students know the norms (i.e., supply words or full sentences), expectations (display thinking in words or images), and the ramifications of the assessment (will the learner be expected to repair, revamp, redo, or restart).

Slowing assessment has numerous advantages in relation to the process, purpose, and outcomes of learning. It begins when students understand that assessment is important and worthy of the required and expected time and effort. It helps when students receive assurance that they will have adequate time to complete the assessment and that fast and sloppy work may be returned to them for deeper and more detailed evidence of learning.

Mr. Walsk expects his students to provide more than a one-word response and provides examples. Ms. Wagner incorporates a self-monitoring assessment checklist so that students can check-off each step as they complete it. For example, “I used our unit vocabulary in my answers”, or “My opening sentence is top quality because_____”, or “I showed two ways to calculate the area”, or “I fully explained the character’s motivation and gave three reasons for his actions.” 

Mr. Walsk expects his students to provide more than a one-word response and provides examples. Ms. Wagner incorporates a self-monitoring assessment checklist so that students can check-off each step as they complete it. For example, “I used our unit vocabulary in my answers”, “My opening sentence is top quality because_____”, or “I showed two ways to calculate the area”, or “I fully explained the character’s motivation and gave three reasons for his actions.”

For early finishers or more hurried learners include a brief follow-up or supplement to their assessment, for example, writing a short rhyme or cinquain, preparing an acrostic, advertisement, or designing a bumper sticker about their learning.

Slowing assessment leads to higher quality outcomes. Elevating assessment (the quality and also the importance of it) may mean asking students to check the length and complexity of their answers, or elaborate how they rechecked their work, for example, by using an alternative math calculation, or made their thinking visible by explaining why they used a specific word or phrase. Relying on slow assessment strategies puts an emphasis on the journey, not just the outcomes and scores. Here are 10 ideas for putting this into practice:

  1. Provide examples of different levels or quality of work. Ask students to discuss and pre-assess what they observe.
  2. Be sure that learners understand the standards and expectations. Discreetly guide and reassure them as they complete their own assessments.
  3. Confirm that instructions are clear, both orally and in writing. When possible, include samples and models of expected outcomes.
  4. Pause for a brief tete-a-tete or quietly place an informative and instructive sticky note on their work.  Alternatively, that sticky note can be a “speeding ticket” with a reminder to rethink and/or redo part of the assessment.
  5. Give early finishers puzzles or other supplemental materials for reviewing or extending learning.  
  6. Encourage students to do their best work by making every effort and/or seeking guidance to reach the top of the scoring rubric.
  7. If there is a fun conclusion to learning, explain that all will participate when everyone has, productively and to their best ability, completed the assessment.
  8. Collaborate with parents on recognitions and incentives for acceptable, careful, thorough, or other previously determined outcomes, demonstrations of competencies, and evidence of progress on assessments.
  9. As students complete their assessment, have them review the rubric and note with different colored pencils where their work matches or doesn’t yet reach the requirements and expectations.
  10. Before turning in their work, students remain in their seats until everyone has given the signal that they have finished. While they wait for the whole class to complete the assessment, they can review their work, continue their learning with an activity or reading that goes more deeply into the topic, or prepare for the next topic unit with a preview of learning. In this way, they own the learning and can decide whether to improve their work or to move forward with next steps.

For additional insights and recommendations try these resources:

You will find deeper and more technical readings at the references below:

You can learn more about the book at:
Sticky Assessment: Classroom Strategies to Amplify Student Learning

You can find a free summary of the book at:  
The Science of Sticky Assessment

Eggen, Theo J.H.M. (2018) Multi-segment computerized adaptive testing for educational purposes.

Kimura, T. (2019) The impact of computer adaptive testing from a variety of perspectives.

Ling, G. Attali, Y et al. (2017) Is a computerized adaptive test more motivating than a fixed-item test.

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Optimizing Assessment


The word optimization means making the most effective use of resources, ideas, or conditions in order to make something as functional and effective as possible. Examples include optimizing your computer’s speed or maximizing your car’s fuel efficiency.  Optimization infers making the best use of programs and practices in ways that benefit all parts of a system.

In relation to educational assessment, optimization has become a technology catchphrase. Specialists are developing computer programs that are intended to improve learning and assessment through adaptive technologies, alternative pathways for learning, and customization for each student’s needs and capabilities.

In schools, optimization has come to mean expediting short term goals, for example, student’s test scores and evaluations of teachers, through (in my opinion) transitory measures. But here’s the problem with that approach: Students and teachers are not simply data points, nor are they programmable plug-ins to be continuously recalibrated.  It takes time and resources to acclimate to this rapid pace of change.

Optimization of student learning is more inherently and appropriately associated with engagement, personalization, and differentiation. For example, combining consistent instructional standards with coherent student learning intentions results in assessments are consistent yet also more flexible. One student may explain the outcomes of the American Revolution by graphically illustrating the significance of events and battles of the war while another student opts for a more traditional selected choice test.

If technology optimization is consumer-driven, then educational optimization is compelled to be student-driven. This does not diminish the value of teachers, curriculum coordinators, and school leaders. But, it does necessitate reliance on established best practices in teaching, learning, and assessing. If the goal is assessments that meet or exceed purposes and expectations while providing opportunities for students to succeed, then optimizing, (as in enhancing and fortifying instruction and assessment in support of student learning) may be the term to use.

Optimizing assessment means refocusing on learning, learners, and progress. Test scores are only one small part of this. Rather, restoring assessment to its intended purpose of supporting and facilitating learning can better optimize learning outcomes. 

Unlike computers, humans are multisensory and have expansive emotional and social underpinnings for learning. From learning math to mastering a new language, learning is rarely linear or fully logical. Thus, optimizing assessment is different and more complex for humans than for machines. However, it is feasible to optimize the assessment of student learning.

From in-the-moment reviews and check-ins on progress to self-assessments and large-scale measures, the foundations of assessment must rely on a substantiated core of best practice. From national to district policy and from student report cards to classroom routines, educators must be consistent in relying on fundamental practices that reveal student learning, thinking, and reasoning, and then responding in timely and relevant ways.

Optimization for Students
Confirm that learning outcomes are clear, reasonable, realistic, and practical to students and are conveyed through multiple channels; orally, visually, in writing, and demonstrated. For example:
Big Picture Standard: Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures and reproducing a drawing at a different scale.
Local Practice: Standard Deconstructed: Students will compute the area of the classroom and present a blueprint that indicates the scale used. Other students then explain why they would or would not rely on that blueprint to purchase carpeting.

Optimization for Teachers
Verify that big-picture standards have been deconstructed into teachable and actionable elements. For example:
Big picture standard: Cite strong textual evidence to support an accurate analysis of what was stated.
Local Practice: Standard Deconstructed: Use words, phrases, and facts from the reading to explain and support your interpretation and evaluation of the author’s position on _______.

Optimization for Learning
Determine that there is alignment from the standard through the curriculum, instructional strategy, learning processes, forms of evidence, and the final assessments or measures of learning.
Confirm that standards are in fact assessable.
*For individual or group reflection: Which of these similar learning are optimized? Select a or b.
a. Students will develop persuasive writing skills based on rules of writing.  
b. Students will write or present a well-constructed, purposeful, cohesive, and persuasive essay or product that aligns with specified quality indicators.

Optimizing the process
Ensure that the purpose and methods of assessment align with what students are expected to know and do. Use words and expressions that are understood by all stakeholders.
*For individual or group discussion: Which of these leads to optimized assessment? Select a or b
a. What does it mean to be competent?
b. Consider and compare how demonstrations of competency can be shown through test scores, authentic performances, or student self-assessment.         
(hint: answer to both of the above question are b, but why?)

The best learning occurs when the challenge is real-world, the process is multi-faceted, and students understand the expected outcomes. The result is a willingness to overcome challenges with the guidance and support of others who are more skilled and knowledgeable.

Resources for Deeper Understanding
Sticky Assessment: Classroom Strategies to Amplify Student Learning
Optimize Student Learning
Seven Practices For Effective Learning:

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Assessment That Makes Learning Unforgettable

Two distinct ideas converged on my desk recently: Cognitive Load and Forgetting Curve. Individually, they are important, but together they are unforgettable. When combined, they explain a lot about learning and what is remembered for a test or assessment.

Forgetting is natural. How many times have teachers said, “I know I taught it, but why don’t they remember it?” Recall for everyone is hard if you consider this forgetting curve.ebbinghaus-forgetting-curve

Then there’s John Sweller’s cognitive load theory that explains that there are limits to new learning and that “instructional techniques are most effective when they are in accord with how human brains learn.” (Center for Education Statistics and Evaluation, p.2) Working memory is what an individual can hold in their brain at any one time. These short-term thoughts get transferred to long-term memory where they are sorted, organized, and utilized. Here are some assessment strategies to strengthen students’ memory.

Assess in the short term rather than relying on infrequent summative tests. Use entrance slips to see what students remember from a previous lesson: Consider un-graded exit slips before moving on to the next segment of learning or as a guide to the start of tomorrow’s lesson. Ask students to explain gravity to an extra-terrestrial or compassion to a novice superhero. As feasible, have them assess each other’s accuracy and depth of information.

Multimodal: Each student is a unique learner, but it is not realistic to prepare lessons for each one. Instead, include a sensory experience with each learning intention. Consider these options: Individually or in small groups, summarize learning by writing a brief rap, interpret song lyrics such as “We Didn’t Start the Fire,” clap to the beat of Shakespeare, or transform a traditional nursery rhyme into a current news report.

Assess Chunked Learning: Engage students in organizing key ideas, asking questions about quote or event, proposing alternative perspectives or solutions, or labeling related ideas or processes with color-colored sticky notes.

Peer to Peer: A simple “turn and talk” is enhanced with a talk-back, where a listener not only listens but explains what they heard the speaker say. The speaker then explains why they concur with the other’s summary or may alternatively clarify or amend their own comments.

Revisit and Recycle: Practice, review, and include prior learning in new material. This is especially important for building essential foundations of learning. For example, ask students to explain ways they are using the scientific process during each lab. Build student confidence by starting a new test with some review questions. Rely a different modality for reviewing than was used for learning, i.e. a viewing rather than a reading.

With Feeling: Emotions serve to embed learning. Laughter, stomping, sounds, and movement help students connect what they just learned to an emotion. For example, express a character’s anger by stomping, make a face to express your feelings about current events, demonstrate astonishment at an awesome science demonstration. Then ask students to explain or elaborate those feelings using electronic post-its or annotations on their tests.

These momentary pauses that solidify learning can enhance student memory and ease everyone’s cognitive load. Think about ways you can apply these ideas. For me, having translated the essential ideas of forgetfulness and cognitive load theory perhaps I’ll have better recall next time I try to persuade policy writers to:                                                                     TEST LESS………………ASSESS MORE


First published in Corwin Connect Dec. 2017

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Assessment of Standards vs. Learning Intentions: What’s the big idea?

cactus-1063094__180This provocative question came from Dr. Paul Yovanoff and students in his Department of Teaching & Learning teacher preparation program at SMU: In light of controversies with the adoption of Common Core Standards, what are the critical issues for teachers to understand about aligning standards, learning intentions, and assessment? Here’s my response:

The two primary reasons for the pushback on the CCSS are one: they were designed by a group of professors, thought leaders, and corporate interests, many with insufficient classroom experience to understand the nuances of teaching and learning. Secondly, education has traditionally been a state and local responsibility. While a few states are declining to use them, many others are modifying them for clarity, alignment with curriculum, and local contexts. Balancing these multiple mandates with available resources can be challenging.

Below are two basic concepts followed by five fundamental actions for aligning assessment with any and all standards from in-the-moment appraisals of progress to international benchmarks.

  1. Most important is for teachers to be familiar with the expected outcomes and their relevance and feasibility in grade levels and content areas. Consider not only alignment with standards but also developmental appropriateness. The standard, “determine the main idea of a text” makes sense for 9-year-olds, but asking 14-year-olds to “draw on a wide range of world literature to understand author’s point of view,” (RL.9-10.7) may not be as reasonable or realistic.
  2. Be mindful of students’ foundations, needs, inclinations, and competencies. The first few years of teaching will be memorably challenging but, as with any new endeavor, knowledge and skills develop with time, practice, and support. When in doubt, return to these five foundations of quality assessment:

PURPOSEFUL in relation to big-picture standards as well as each day’s local learning intentions: Is there alignment between assessments and the goals of learning? Is there coherence right through from the big- picture standards to the strategies students rely on to show what they have learned?

ENGAGING: Do students have choice in displaying their learning outcomes? For example, in one class, José chooses to create a crossword puzzle of the vocabulary, Amara writes a poem that incorporates and defines the vocabulary, and Izzy creates a mnemonic device.

INFORMATIVE for both teachers and students in gaining insights into learning. Do assessments identify lingering gaps and guide responses for reducing and closing them?

BALANCED in using a range of assessment practices to gauge learning throughout the taxonomies, including preassessment, formative assessment, self-assessment, and standardized measures.

STUDENT CENTERED meaning fair, equitable, and realistic for all learners. For example, are students allowed to annotate their responses, explain points of confusion, or ask clarifying questions on the assessments?

Relying on these foundations provides all students with the opportunities they need to make progress towards the achievement of the big-picture standards, regardless of their source. More information on these topics is available throughout the assessmentnetwork.

Let me know if you have any questions, keep up the good work, and best regards,
Laura Greenstein, Ed.D. classroom4

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What’s a Goat Got To Do With Assessment?


Part 3 in a series about the Big Truths in Assessment

Emotionally charged headlines and social media messages may get our attention by being uplifting and encouraging, or alternatively, abhorrent and shocking. But, the stories behind headlines are generally more complex compelling and far-reaching. And, so it was with Beatrice and her goat.

A small action, such as tossing a pebble into a pond, may appear inconsequential, but now and again, an unpretentious act has unforeseeable effects. More than 30 years ago, rather than a tossed pebble, a baby goat was transported to in a remote village in Uganda. A girl named Beatrice lived in this community where every day was a struggle to survive. She dreamed of going to school, but that was not possible as her family depended for their survival on the jugs of water she hauled each day from distant streams and wells.

At first, a donated goat made no sense to Beatrice. But after learning how to sell the goat’s milk and breed the goat, she and her family realized that goats could indeed be life-sustaining. Beatrice was overjoyed when she earned enough money ($20.00 per week) to attend a local school where she worked hard and excelled. In 2003 she was invited to attend secondary school in the U.S. Then, due to her hard work and determination, she earned a full scholarship to college. She tells her story here:

In the course of delivering her speech, she explains that her education was the result of a goal set by a youth group at Niantic Community Church. Over time, the group worked hard to raise enough money to donate one goat. On this particular year, Andrew and his friend Steve set out to raise the most money. Although competition was not encouraged, their fellowship team raised enough money collectively to send a goat to Africa. At the time, they didn’t know it was Beatrice and her family who received this gift.

You may be wondering what this has to do with pebbles, ripples, and connections. Here are a few insights:

  • Today, Beatrice is a community engagement coordinator with Heifer International, helping families like hers to become self-sufficient.
  • Today, Andrew and Steven, who met in preschool in 1983, are still best friends, who continue to challenge each other to achieve their goals.
  • Today, the Youth Fellowship at Niantic Community Church continues their Heifer outreach.

In relation to teachers, students, and assessment, we can never know how far a droplet of kindness, encouragement, insight, or assistance will spread. In the classroom, it may mean taking a moment to clarify learning intentions, providing an alternative resource, offering purposeful feedback, or encouraging diverse ways for students to demonstrate their learning. How will you start the ripples?


ADDITIONAL RESOURCES Watch Beatrice’s speech after graduating from Connecticut College in 2008 and beginning her graduate studies at the Clinton School of Public Service.

And here’s a 60 Minute’s story about the girl who was lifted out of poverty, all because of a goat.

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ASSESSMENT BASICS: Timeless Fundamentals and Essential Mindsets

Part 2 in a series on Big Ideas and Honest Truths about Assessment

It is the enduring ideas in assessment rather than the latest trends that are most worthy of our attention. Relying on taxonomies, such as Bloom’s, Webb’s, and SOLO, is useful in understanding the organization and sequence of learning. Whether you and your school/district emphasize selected choice questions or Socratic questioning and dialogue, all types of learning can be developed and assessed. From cognitive to behavioral theories of learning and from Gestalt to Skinner, the fundamentals of best practice in assessment (as well as teaching and learning) have remained constant.

When I first started teaching I was given this advice: Tell them what they are going to learn, teach them, find out what they learned. Then Madeline Hunter(1)  gave us this lesson plan model: Stated Objectives, Anticipatory Set, Modeling, Checking Understanding, Guided Practice, Independent Practice, and Closure. In the 1980s being A Nation at Risk (2) led to required accountability and in the 1990s AYP measures let to comparisons from multiple and sometimes contradictory sources of data, i.e., proficiency vs. growth.

By the 21st century there were many new trends in educational assessment, making it even more difficult to comprehend and sustain. Consider these few: constructivist, competency, problem and project-based, comprehensive and communal standards (aka Common Core) gamified, blended, personalized, flexible, and flipped.

Despite these recurring and time-consuming changes, there are longstanding assessment principles and practices that are effective and productive. By relying on these principles way we can be sure to treat our students, teachers, and schools, as assessment VIP’S.    vocab2

V = VARIED: Assessment has multiple purposes from pre-assessment to large-scale measures of learning.  It relies on a continuum of methodology including classroom appraisals, formative assessments, and summative/large-scale measures.

I = INTEGRAL: Assessment is seamless and incorporated throughout teaching and learning. It is
INTENTIONAL in its sequence and cycle and also in engaging of learners in assessment and as assessors.
ILLUMINATING: Effective assessment, in turn, illuminates learning and informs teaching. When assessment aligns with learning intentions, it offers usable insights into learning, informs inferences made about progress and outcomes, and guides the next steps.

P = PRACTICAL concerning student’s readiness, resources, and tempo of learning as well as the desires and necessities of constituents.
 PURPOSEFUL and planned to support learning intentions and processes. Designed to meet the circumstances and expectations of learners.

S = SYSTEMIC AND SEQUENTIAL: Develops and proceeds in ways that are educationally integrated and supportive.
 SOUND: Technically sound assessment is valid (clear, accurate, precise) and reliable (consistent, dependable)

  1. Madeline Hunter lesson plan design
  2. A Nation at Risk: from Archives at the U.S. Department of Education

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I loathed assessment: Then I saw the light


A long time ago I learned not to give unsolicited advice. However, if you are reading this you may well be looking for ways to make your students’ assessments more meaningful, relevant, substantial, and informative.

Like many of my peers, I detested those Friday tests intended to reveal what I learned that week. And large-scale tests were equally distressing. Then midway in my career I decided to become a teacher. That’s when I realized that I had testing all wrong: Not the test answers but rather their principles and practices. I became so passionate about quality assessment that I even wrote my dissertation on it.

Here’s the gist of this practical series on assessment:

  1. Strengthening student learning outcomes is a primary purpose of teaching, learning, AND assessing.
  2. Progress and growth are more important than final scores.
  3. Recurring supportive assessment is essential for improving learning outcomes in any endeavor.

Being trustworthy has been important to me since I earned my Girl Scout Curved Bar award, which is similar in some ways to the Eagle Scout award. This trait has served me well throughout my career as an educator, author, and wayward thought leader. I am passionate about assessment that is intentional, purposeful, continuous, and utilized in ways that sustain learning rather than judge and discourage learners.

Assessment comes from the Latin root assidere meaning to sit beside. In education, assidere refers to observing learning, gathering, and interpreting evidence of learning, sharing results, and responding to learning outcomes. I hope you find my insights about those elements of assidere to be practical and realistic.

You can find more information on these foundations of assessment at:




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Hare, Hat, Cylinder, Conjure, Spotlight, Easter
Specious Assessment: Misleading, Deceptive, Ambiguous
Dependable Assessment: Coherent, Balanced, Reasoned

Webster’s dictionary defines specious as having a false look of truth or genuineness or being deceptively attractive. Synonyms include misleading and deceitful. The opposite of specious is aboveboard, forthright, and straightforward.  

Down the Rabbit Hole
The idea of assessment being specious began with a reference in a research report on the importance of questioning specious, high stakes, standardized tests. The citation led me to another reading which led me to a report from Dan Hamlin explaining that high standards don’t necessarily mean higher test scores.

And that’s where, as so often happens, I jumped into the rabbit hole and kept digging for more information. This article, from Education Next, explains that state’s proficiency standards have had no effect on test scores.

All of this was brought to the local level in a USA Today story that compared states using data from graduation rates, 8th-grade NAEP scores, and average adult incomes. Honestly, there were few surprises on the list, with states in the northeast scoring the highest, and southern states in general, scoring lower.

Interestingly, some of the lower performing states, also claim higher graduation rates and greater enrollment in higher education. What they don’t explain is the rest of the story, for example, states reliance on scripted lesson plans, adjustments to graduation requirements, and preparation for college.

Assessment can be imbalanced and unreliable OR coherent and dependable
“In education, the term assessment refers to the wide variety of methods or tools that educators use to evaluate, measure, and document the academic readiness, learning progress, skill acquisition, or educational needs of students.” (EdGlossary)

Experts in assessment such as the National Academy Press’ publication, Knowing What Students Know, edited by James Pellegrino, Naomi Chudowsky and Robert Glaser, and other authorities including James H. McMillan, Dylan Wiliam, Linda Darling-Hammond, and Dan Koretz, and organization such as NCIEA, NCME, CRESST  have reliably and consistently described the essential elements of effective assessment.

On the other hand, there are blaring headlines trying to persuade us to purchase the perfect program, package, or platform. Or headlines that are just plain scary (I collected these during the past few weeks from educational resources) “Cause for concern,” “Teacher’s grapple with,” and “Future is unclear,”

balance-world-2030099_960_720-copy-2Straightforward Realities of Best Practice

Digging deeper into the real world of assessment, rather than idealistic prototypes and commercial persuasion, means looking at assessment from multiple perspectives and considering best practices through multiple lenses: students, teachers, classrooms and school as well as realistic policy and feasible financial considerations.

Here are a few essentials. You can learn more about best practice at the Assessment Network and the resources listed below

ALIGNED With effective and coherent curriculum, learning intentions, and instruction

PURPOSEFUL: Supports learning and encourages improvement in performance

EMBEDDED Throughout teaching and learning, assessment tracks progress and informs the next steps.

COMPREHENSIVE: From large-scale to local, varied, heterogeneous, and multidimensional methods are evident.

RESPONSIVE: Applied Use of information: from immediate responses to long term planning

At the end of the rabbit hole, you’ll find a world where assessment is part of a comprehensive and student-centered, culture of learning.

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